Intrathecal morphine pumps, peripheral nerve stimulators (PNS), and spinal cord stimulators (SCS) are devices utilized after other treatments have failed.
Intrathecal Morphine Pumps
Intrathecal morphine pumps (IMP) deliver morphine or other opioids directly to the spinal cord where they bind to sites specific for morphine-type medications. The medications are placed directly where needed which allows the dose to be significantly lower, leading to fewer side effects.
Spinal cord stimulation
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is designed to cover the patient's painful sensation with a "pleasant" stimulation pattern. The SCS unit has three components: the electrode (a thin electronic wire placed in the epidural space), a "pacemaker" battery, and a remote control. The electrode is used to treat a range of pain syndromes, i.e., head pain, neck/arm pain, and low back pain as well as a number of nerve injury states.
Peripheral nerve stimulation
This technology is similar to spinal cord stimulation except that the electrode is placed in proximity to specific nerves that have been injured or contribute significantly to pain syndromes, e.g., ulnar nerve for injured arm or occipital nerve for head trauma (whiplash, closed head injury, etc.), or refractory head pain not responsive to medical therapy or nerve blocks.